The University of Arizona


Artificial Intelligence

Steven Hanks, Martha E. Pollack and Paul R. Cohen. "Benchmarks, Testbeds, Controlled Experimentation, and the Design of Agent Architectures", AI Magazine ,14(4): 17-42. Winter issue, 1993. (PDF)

Cognitive Fit as a Scientific Theory

Iris Vessey, "Cognitive Fit: A Theory-based Analysis of Graphs vs. Tables Literature", Decision Sciences, 22(2): 219-240, March 1991. (PDF)

Computation as a Pillar of Science

S. Lloyd, Programming the Universe: A Quantum Computer Scientist Takes on the Cosmos, Knopf, 2006. (review)

G. J. Sussman and J. Wisdom, with M. E. Mayer, Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics, MIT Press, 2001. (HTML)

Janette Wing, "Computational Thinking," CACM 49(3): 33-35, March 2006. (PDF)

National Science Foundation, Cyber-enabled Discovery and Innovation (CDI) Program.

Towards 2020 Science (microsoft) (nature)

Experimental Algorithmics (aka Empirical Algorithmics)

J. N. Hooker. "Needed: An Empirical Science of Algorithms", Operations Research, March 1994, pp. 201-212. (PDF)

H. H. Hoos. "Introduction to Empirical Algorithmics," powerpoint presentation, fall, 2003. (PDF)

L. Paquete, M. Chiarandini and D. Basso (eds), Empirical Methods for the Analysis of Algorithms, Proceedings of EMAA Workshop, Reykjavik, Iceland, September, 2006. (online proceedings)

Catherine C. McGeoch, Peters Sanders, Rudolf Feeischer, Paul R. Cohen, and Doina Precup, "Using Finite Experiments to Study Asymptotic Performance," pp. 93-126, Experimental Algorithmics, LNCS 2547, R. Fleischer et al. (eds), Springer-Verlag Berlin, 2002

Catherine C. McGeoch, A Guide to Experimental Algorithmics, Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Engineering in Computer Science

Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., "The computer scientist as toolsmith II", Communications of the ACM, 39(3): 61-68, March 1996. (PDF)

Locality Principle as a Scientific Theory
Peter J. Denning, "The Locality Principle", CACM 48(7): 19-24, July 2005. (PDF)
Mathematics of Computer Science

Ronald L. Graham, Donald E. Knuth, and Orien Patashnik. Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science, second edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1994.

Donald E. Knuth, "Algorithms in Modern Mathematics and Computer Science", from a 1979 symposium in Uzbekistan SSR, republished as chapter 4 in Selected Papers on Computer Science, CSLI Publications/Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996 It was also published as a Stanford CS tech report STAN-CS-80-786. (PDF)

A. M. Turing, "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem", Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society s2-42(1): 230-265, 1937. (PDF)


Paul R. Cohen. "Getting What You Deserve from Data", IEEE Expert Intelligent Systems & Their Applications, vol.11, no. 5, pp. 12-14, 1996. (PDF)

Piater, Justus H., Paul R. Cohen, Xiaoqun Zhang and Michael Atighetchi. "A Randomized ANOVA Procedure for Comparing Performance Curves", Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 430-438, 1998. (PDF)

Philosophy of Science

P. Achinstein. Law and Explanation, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1971.

F. Aicken. The Nature of Science, Heinemann Educational Books, London, 1984.

A. F. Chalmers. What is this thing called Science? Third Edition, Hackett Publishing Company, 1999.

J. T. Davies. The Scientific Approach, Academic Press, New York, 1973.

R. N. Giere. Understanding Scientific Reasoning, fourth edition, Harcourt Brace, Fort Worth, TX, 1979.

John Horgan. The End of Science, Helix Books, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1996.

John Horgan. "The End of Science Revisited," IEEE Computer 37(1): 37-43, January 2004. (PDF)

A. K. Kohli. "Theory Construction in Marketing," talk at the University of Arizona, April 2008.

Thomas Kuhn. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Karl R. Popper. Conjectures and Refutations, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1969.

Operating Systems

Paul R. Cohen, Marc Atkin, and Eric A. Hansen. "The Interval Reduction Strategy for Monitoring Cupcake Problems", Proceedings, from Animals to Animats, the Third International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior. 1994. (PDF)

Philosophy of Computer Science

Amnon H. Eden. "Three Paradigms in Computer Science", Minds and Machines, 17(2): 135-167. (PDF)

Stephen T. Frezza, "Computer Science: Is It Really the Scientific Foundation for Software Engineering?", IEEE Computer 43(8):98-101, August 2010.

Peter A. Freeman, "Consideration of the Question 'What is Computation?' Considered Harmful," Ubiquity symposium: What is Computation?, Volume 2011, March (2011), Pages 1-4

Gonzalo GĂ©nova. "Is Computer Science Truly Scientific?". Communications of the ACM, Vol. 53 No. 7, Pages 37-39, July 2010. (HTML)

Goldsworthy, F. A. (Editor). Computer Science. Centenary of Girton College, Cambridge. Proceedings Of a Symposium held August 1969. Southend-on-Sea, 1970. Special issue of the Bulletin of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. Vol. 6 No. 1 April 1970.

R.W. Hamming's, "Turing lecture", JACM 16(1), Jan 1969, pp. 3-12. (PDF)

Christopher Strachey. "Is computing science?", Proceedings of a Symposium on Computer Science, Girton College, Cambridge, August 1969.

Physical Symbol System Hypothesis As a Scientific Theory

Alan Newell and Herbert Simon, "Computer Science as Empirical Inquiry: Symbols and Search", CACM 19(3): 113-126, March 1976. (PDF)

Relational Theory as a Scientific Theory

C. W. Bachman, "The programmer as navigator", CACM 16(11): 653-658, November 1973. (PDF)

Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce, "SEQUEL: A structured English query language", Proceedings of the ACM SIGFIDET Workshop on Data Description, Access and Control, pp. 249-264, 1974. (PDF)

Edgar F. Codd, "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks," CACM 13(6): 377-387, June 1970. (PDF)

Patricia G. Selinger, M. M. Astrahan, Donald D. Chamberlin, R. A. Lorie, T. G. Price, "Access path selection in a relational database management system", Proceedings of the 1979 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, pp. 23-34, May 1979. (PDF)

Science of Computer Science

Victor R. Basili and Marvin V. Zelkowitz, "Empirical studies to build a science of computer science", Communications of the ACM, Volume 50, Issue 11, 2007. (PDF)

Victor R. Basili, "The Role of Experimentation in Software Engineering: Past, Current, and Future", Proc 18th Int. Conft. Software Eng., IEEE Computer Science Press, Berlin, Germany, pp. 442-449, March 1996. (PDF)

Paul Cohen, Empirical Methods for Artificial Intelligence, MIT Press, 1995.

Peter J. Denning, "What is Experimental Computer Science?", CACM 23(10): 543-544, October 1980. (PDF)

Peter J. Denning, "Performance Analysis: Experimental Computer Science as its Best", Communications of the ACM 24(11): 725-727, November 1981. (PDF)

Peter J. Denning, "The Science of Computing: What is computer science?", American Scientist 73(1): 16-19, 1985.

Peter J. Denning, "Can There Be a Science of Information?", ACM Computing Surveys 27(1): 23-25, March 1995. (PDF)

Peter J. Denning, "Is Computer Science Science?", CACM 48(4): 27-31, April 2005. (PDF)

Peter J. Denning, "Computing is a Natural Science", CACM 50(7): 13-18, July 2007. (PDF)

Fenton, Pfleeger, and Robert Glass. "Science and Substance: A Challenge to Software Engineers", IEEE Software, July 1994, pp. 86-95. (PDF)

Peter Freeman and D. Hart. "A Science of Design for Software-Intensive Systems", CACM 47(8): 19-21, August 2004. (PDF)

Robert Glass. "A Structure-Based Critique of Contemporary Computing Research", Journal of Systems Software, 38: 3-7, 1995. (PDF)

Robert Glass, Ramesh, and Iris Vessey. "An Analysis of Research in Computing Disciplines", CACM 47(6): 89-94, June 2004. (PDF)

Jo E. Hannay, Dag I. K. Sjoberg and Tore Dyba. "A Systematic Review of Theory Use in Software Engineering Experiments", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 33(2): 87-197, February 2007. (PDF)

Peter Lee. "Science and Nature: Where's the Computing Research?" (Computing Community Blog), September 12, 2008.

Alan Newell, Alan J. Perlis, and Herbert A. Simon. "Computer Science," letter in Science 157(3795): 1373-1374, September 1967.

Colin Potts and Wendy C. Newstetter. "Naturalistic Inquiry and Requirements Engineering: Reconciling Their Theoretical Foundations", International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, pp. 118-127, 1997. (PDF)

Herbert A. Simon. Sciences of the Artificial, Third Edition, MIT Press, Boston, MA, 1996.

Walter F. Tichy, P. Lukowicz, L. Prechelt, and E. A. Heinz. "Experimental Evaluation of Computer Science: A Qualitative Study", J. Systems Software 28:9-18, 1995.

Walter F. Tichy. "Should Computer Scientists Experiment More?", IEEE Computer 31(5): 32-40, May 1998. (PDF)

Janette Wing. "Network Science and Engineering: Call for a Research Agenda", talk at Stanford University, May 21, 2008. (PDF)

William A. Wulf. "Are We Scientists or Engineers?", ACM Computing Surveys 27(1): 55-57, March 1995. (PDF)

Marvin V. Zelkowitz and Wallace. "Experimental Models for Validating Technology", IEEE Computer, pp. 23-31, May, 1998. (PDF)

Marvin V. Zelkowitz and D. R. Wallace. "Experimental Validation in software engineering", Information and Software Technology 30: 735-743, 1997.

Science of Information Systems

Burnstein and Gregor. "The Systems Development or Engineering Approach to Research in Information Systems: An Action Research Perspective", Proc Australasian Conference on Information Systems, pp. 122-134, 1999.

Alan Hevner, Sal March, Park, and Sudha Ram. "Design Science in Information Systems Research", MIS Quarterly 28(1): 75-105, March 2004. (PDF)

Khazanchi and Munkvold. "Is Information Systems a Science? An Inquiry into the Nature of the Information Systems Discipline", The Data Base for Advances in Information Systems 31(3): 24-42, Summer 2000. (PDF)

Sal March and Smith. "Design and natural science research on information technology", Decision Support Systems15: 251-266, 1995.

Jay Nunamaker, Chen, and Purdin. "Systems Development in Information Systems Research", Journal of Management Information Systems 7(3): 80-106, Winter 1990-91. (PDF)

Topi, Heikki and V. Ramesh. "Toward an Extended Framework for Human Factors Research on Data Modeling", Chapter X Advanced Topics in Database Research Series, Volume 3, pp. 188-217, Idea Group Publishers, 2004.

Science of Security

JASON, "Science of Cyber-Security", Defense Advisory Panel Report, JSR-10-102, November 2010. (Reports)

Aliya Sternstein, "NSA wants to inject more science into computer security," March 15, 2012,

Services Science

H. Chesbrough and J. Spohrer. "A research manifesto for services science", CACM 49(7): 35-43, July 2006. (PDF)

Structural Causal Models

Kenneth A. Bollen. Structural Equations with Latent Variables. Wiley, New York, 1989.

Daphne Koller and Nir Friedman. Probabilistic Graphical Models: Principles and Techniques. The MIT Press, 2009.

Steffen L. Lauritzen. Graphical Models. Oxford Statistical Science Series. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996.

Judea Pearl. Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems: Networks of Plausible Inference. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1988.

Judea Pearl. Causality: Models, reasoning and inference, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 2009.'

Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour and Richard Scheines. Causation, Prediction, and Search, 2nd ed. The MIT Press, 2000.'

Clark Glymour, Peter Spirtes, and Richard Scheines. Prediction and experiment design with graphical causal models. In Computation, Causation and Discovery, C. Glymour and G. F. Cooper, Eds. The MIT Press, 1999.

Web Science

Tim Berners-Lee, Wendy Hall, J. Hendler, K. O'Hara, N. Shadbolt, and D. Weitzner. "A framework for Web science", Foundations and Trends in Web Science 1(1): 1-130, 2006. (HTML)

Tim Berners-Lee, Wendy Hall, J. Hendler, N. Shadbolt, and D. Weitzner. "Creating a science of the Web", Science 313(11): 769-7710, August 2006.

Ben Schneiderman. "Web Science: A Provocative Invitation to Computer Science", CACM 50(6): 25-27, June 2007.

Ben Schneiderman. "Science 2.0", Science 319: 1349-1350, March 7, 2008.

Web Sites

Peter Denning and Craig Martell, Great Principles of Computing .

Rebooting Computing, The Magic and Beauty of Computing.

Web Science Research Initiative.


Peter Freeman, "Science, Computational Science, and Computer Science," Invited Lecture presented at the TU/Kaiserslautern (Germany), January 13, 2009.

Workshop on the Science of Design on June 3-6, 2007, including many presentations. (HTML)


Peter Freeman, "Computer Science: The Key to Future Advances in Science and Engineering", Invited Lecture given at Indiana University, School of Informatics April 4, 2008.

Peter Freeman, "Computer Science: The Key to Future Advances in Science and Engineering" Invited Lecture given at TU/Kaiserslautern (Germany), January 15, 2008.

Marvin V. Zelkowitz. "The Science of Software Engineering," Keynote Address, International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, Orlando, Florida, October 2009. (PDF of slides)

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